Konstantinos Goulas


This article is going to present a review of the most influential and mainstream theories about leadership, which are of significant meaning for a successful manager. The author will focus on some leadership theories by giving a more detailed image of the characteristics and attributes that an effective manager should have. The principal message of this article is that it is important to reflect the type of leader that a manager wants to be so that he remains loyal to his principles. In conclusion, the author leads to the fact that the traditional theories of leadership have not provided a completely satisfactory framework for leadership effectiveness. The modern theory emphasizes the image of an effective manager as an organizational reality.


Keywords: leadership theory; entrepreneurship; leader behaviour; relational leadership; transactional

JEL Codes: O15, L26, M12


Barnard, C. I. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. M.A: Harvard University Press.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2017.0420

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership: Good, better, best, Journal of Organizational Dynamics, 13(3), 26–40.   https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(85)90028-2

Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industrial, Military and Educational Impact, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Bass, B. M. & Stodgill, R.M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.

Benne, K. & Sheats, P. (1948). Functional Roles of Group Members. Journal of Social Issues, Issue 4, 31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1948.tb01783.x

Blake, R. & Mouton, J. (1964). The managerial grid: The key to leadership excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf   Publishing Company.

Dinh, J.E. & Lord, R. G. (2012). Implications of dispositional and process views of traits for individual difference research in leadership. Quarterly Leadership, Vol. 23, Issue 4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.03.003  

Downton, J. V. (1973). Rebel leadership: Commitment and charisma in the revolutionary process.

Zaccaro, R. (2007).  Trait-based perspectives of leadership. Journal of American Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.1.6

Fiedler, F. E. (1967). Contingency Theory of Leader Effectiveness. A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw Hill.

Graen, G. B. & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5

Hackman, M. S. & Johnson, C. E. (2009). Leadership: A communication perspective. (5th ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland   Press.

Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K. (1969). Life cycle theory of leadership. Training & Development Journal, 23(5), 26–34.

Kirkpatrick, S. A. & Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? The Executive, chapter 5, 48-60.

Lussier, R. N. & Achua, C. F. (2007). Leadership: Theory, application, skill development. (3rd ed.). Mason, OH:  Thomson/South-Western.

MacGregor Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. (1st ed.). Harper & Raw.

Mann, R. D. (1959). A review of the relationship between personality and performance in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044587

Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice. (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 183.

Stogdill, R. (1948). Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 35-71.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1948.9917362

Full text: PDF (English)

To cite this article: GOULAS K. (2022). A review of traditional approaches of studying leadership styles. Entrepreneurship, 10 (1), 50-59 DOI: 10.37708/ep.swu.v10i1.5