Majida Jrad


The HRM and effective HR practices play an important role for promoting a committed environment and a culture of citizenship. This study is intended to explore the HRM systems’ dynamics and applied HR practices in Lebanese banks and to find their possible link with employee commitment and citizenship behavior. The primary research selected six most representative Lebanese banks. A questionnaire on employee commitment and citizenship behavior was sent to each bank’s HR officers. The questions were derived from the OCQ, ACS, CCS, NCS, and CBS. Direct positive relationship between HR and organizational commitment was not completely verified in terms of the Lebanese bank institutions. The HR-OCB relationship is much more coherent and noticeable especially when the HR role of employee champion emerges. Commitment has a strong relationship with the OCB. Lebanese banks have very promising examples of serious dynamic HRM initiatives that promote employees’ support and recognize their efforts while trying to capitalize on their competences, commitment, and displayed citizenship behaviors.



human resource management; commitment; questionnaire; Lebanese banks.


JEL Codes: C21; M51; M52; M54



Ackfeldt, Anna-Lena and Coote, Leonard V. “A Study of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in a Retail Setting”. Journal of Business Research 58 (2005): 151-159.

Allen, Natalie J. and Meyer, John P. “The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization”. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63, 1 (1990): 1-18.

Anthony, William P., Kacmar, Michele K., and Perrewe, Pamela L. Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach. 4th edition. South Western, Thomas Learning, 2002.

Armstrong, M. and Long, P. The Reality of Strategic HRM. Institute of Personnel and Development, 1994.

Armstrong, Michael and Baron, Angela. Strategic HRM: The Key to Improved Business Performance. CIPD Publishing, 2002.

Armstrong, Michael. Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 10th Edition. Kogan Page, 2006.

Becker, Brian E. and Huselid, Mark A. “High Performance Work Systems and Firm Performance: A Synthesis of Research and Managerial Implications”. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management 16 (1998): 53-101.

Becker, Brian E. and Huselid, Mark A. “Strategic Human Resources Management: Where Do We Go From Here?” Journal of Management 32, 6 (2006): 898-925.

Becker, Brian E., Huselid, Mark A., Pickus, Peter, and Spratt, Michael. “HR as a Source of Shareholder Value: Research and Recommendations”. Human Resource Management 36, 1 (1997): 39-47.

Benkhoff, Birgit. “Ignoring Commitment Is Costly: New Approaches Establish the Missing Link Between Commitment and Performance”. Human Relations 50, 6 (1997): 701-726.

Bergeron, Diane M. “The Potential Paradox of Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Good Citizens at What Cost?” Academy of Management Review 32, 4 (2007): 1078-1095.

Buck, Jeffrey M. and Watson, John L. “Retaining Staff Employees: The Relationship Between Human Resources Management Strategies and Organizational Commitment”. Innovative Higher Education 26, 3 (2002): 175-193.

Buyens, D. and De Vos, A. “Perceptions of the Value of the HR Function.” Human Resource Management Journal 11, 3 (2001): 70-89.

Collins, Christopher J. and Clark, Kevin D. (2000) . “Strategic Human Resource Practices, Top Management Team Social Networks, and Firm Performance: The Role of Human Resource Practices in Creating Organizational Competitive Advantage”. Academy of Management Journal 46, 6 (2003): 740–751.

Cook, J. and Wall, T. “New Work Attitude Measures of Trust, Organizational Commitment and Personal Need Non-Fulfilment”. Journal of Occupational Psychology 53 (1980): 39-52.

Currivan, Douglas B. “The Causal Order of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Models of Employee Turnover”. Human Resource Management Review 9, 4 (1999): 495-524.

Decenzo, D. and Robbins, S. Human Resource Management, 7th Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002.

Feather, N. T. and Rauter, Katrin A. “Organizational Citizenship Behaviours In Relation to Job Status, Job Insecurity, Organizational Commitment and Identification, Job Satisfaction and Work Values”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 77 (2004): 81-94.

Fiorito, Jack, Bozeman, Dennis P., Young, Angela, and Meurs, James A. “Organizational Commitment, Human Resource Practices, and Organizational Characteristics”. Journal of Managerial Issues 19, 2 (2007): 186-207.

Gaertner, Stefan. “Structural Determinants of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Turnover Models”. Human Resource Management Review 9, 4 (1999): 479-493.

Gilbreath, B. and Montesino, M. U. “Expanding the HRD Role: Improving Employee Well-Being and Organizational Performance”. Human Resource Development International 9, 4 (2006): 563-571.

Gould-Williams, Julian. “The Effects of ‘High Commitment’ HRM Practices on Employee Attitude: The Views of Public Sector Workers”. Public Administration 82, 1 (2004): 63-81.

Guest, D., Michie, J., Conway, N., and Sheehan, M. “Human Resource Management and Corporate Performance in the UK”. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 41, 2 (2003): 291-314.

Huselid, M. A. “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance”. Academy of Management Journal 38, 3 (1995): 635-672.

IRS. “Survey of HR Roles and Responsibilities”. Employment Review 795 (2004): 9-15.

Iverson, Roderick D. and Zatzick, Christopher D. “High-Commitment Work Practices and Downsizing Harshness in Australian Workplaces”. Industrial Relations 46, 3 (2007): 456-480.

Khilji, Shaista. E. and Wang, Xiaoyun. “New Evidence in an Old Debate: Investigating the Relationship between HR Satisfaction and Turnover”. International Business Review 16, 3 (2007): 377-395.

Knight-Turvey, N. and Neal, A. “’High Commitment’ Human Resource Practices, Affective Organisational Commitment, and Employee Level Outcomes: The Role of Perceived Organisational Support”. Australian Journal of Psychology 55 (2003): 134-134.

Kuvaas, Bård. “An Exploration of How the Employee-Organization Relationship Affects the Linkage Between Perception of Developmental Human Resource Practices and Employee Outcomes”. Journal of Management Studies 45, 1 (2008): 1-25.

Mellor, Steven, Mathieu, John E, Barnes-Farrell, Janet L., and Rogelberg, Steven G. “Employees’ Nonwork Obligations and Organizational Commitments: A New Way to Look at the Relationships”. Human Resource Management 40, 2 (2001): 171-184

Meyer, John P. and Allen, N. J. “A Three-component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment”. Human Resource Management Review 1, 1 (1991): 61-89.

Meyer, John P. and Allen, N. J. Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research, and Application. Sage Publications, 1997.

Meyer, John P., Stanley, David J., Herscovitch, Lynne, and Topolnytsky, Laryssa. “Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences”. Journal of Vocational Behavior 61 (2002): 20-52.

Mintzberg, H. “Patterns in Strategy Formation”. Management Sciences 24 (1978): 934-948.

Mondy, Wayne R. and Noe, Robert M. Human Resource Management. 9th Edition. International Edition. Prentice Hall, 2005.

Moorman, Robert H. “Relationship Between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Do Fairness Perceptions Influence Employee Citizenship?” Journal of Applied Psychology 76, 6 (1991): 845-855.

Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe. “Role Definitions and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Importance of the Employee’s Perspective”. Academy of Management Journal 37, 6 (1994): 1543-1567.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., and Porter, L. W. “The Measurement of Organizational Commitment”. Journal of Vocational Behavior 14 (1979): 224-247.

Moynihan, Donald P. and Pandey, Sanjay K. “The Ties that Bind: Social Networks, Person-Organization Value Fit, and Turnover Intention”. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 18, 2 (2008): 205-227.

Organ D. W. Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington Books, 1988.

Organ, D. W. and Konovsky, M. “Cognitive Versus Affective Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behavior”. Journal of Applied Psychology 74, 1 (1989): 157-164.

Organ, D. W. and Ryan, K. “A Meta-analytic Review of Attitudinal and Dispositional Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior”. Personnel Psychology 48, 4 (1995): 775-802.

Paul, A. K. and Anantharaman, R. N. “Impact of People Management Practices on Organizational Performance: Analysis of a Causal Model”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 14, 7 (2003): 1246-1266.

Paul, A. K. and Anantharaman, R. N. “Influence of HRM Practices on Organizational Commitment: A Study Among Software Professionals in India”. Human Resource Development Quarterly 15, 1 (2004): 77-88.

Piercy, Nigel F., Cravens, David W., Lane, Nikala, and Vorhies, Douglas W. “Driving Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Salesperson In-Role Behavior Performance: The Role of Management Control and Perceived Organizational Support”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34, 2 (2006): 244-262.

Podsakoff, P. M. and MacKenzie, S. B. “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Sales Unit Effectiveness”. Journal of Marketing Research 31, 3 (1994): 351-363.

Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., and MacKenzie, S. B. “Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Quality of Work Group Performance”. Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 262-270.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., and Bachrach, D. G. “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research”. Journal of Management 26, 3 (2000): 513-563.

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., and Boulian, P. V. “Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Among Psychiatric Technicians”. Journal of Applied Psychology 59, 5 (1974): 603-609.

Rifai, Harif Amali. “A Test of the Relationships Among Perceptions of Justice, Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior”. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business 7, 2 (2005): 131-154.

Ritzer, G. and Trice, H. M. “An Empirical Study of Howard Becker’s Side-bet Theory”. Social Forces 47 (1969): 475-479.

Robinson, Sandra L. and Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe. “Psychological Contracts and OCB: The Effect of Unfulfilled Obligations on Civic Virtue Behavior”. Journal of Organizational Behavior 16, 3 (1995): 289-298.

Rogg, K. L., Schmidt, D. B., Shull, C., and Schmitt, N. “Human Resource Practices, Organizational Climate, and Customer Satisfaction”. Journal of Management 27 (2001): 431-449.

Salancik, G. R. “Commitment and the Control of Organizational Behavior and Belief”. In Staw, B. M. and Salancik, G. R. (Eds), New Directions in Organizational Behavior. St. Clair Press, 1977.

Schwepker Jr., Charles H. “Ethical Climate’s Relationship to Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention in the Salesforce”. Journal of Business Research 54 (2001): 39– 52.

Selouan, Claudine. Head of Recruitment and Selection Department, Human Resources, Bank Audi s.a.l. Interviewed by author, 14 May 2008, Beirut, Lebanon.

Sheehan, Cathy. “A Model for HRM Strategic Integration.” Personnel Review 34, 2 (2005): 192-209.

Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., and Near, J. P. “Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents”. Journal of Applied Psychology 68, 4 (1983): 653-663.

Sun, Li-Yun, Aryee, Samuel, and Law, Kenneth S. “High-Performance Human Resource Practices, Citizenship Behavior, and Organizational Performance: A Relational Perspective”. Academy of Management Journal 50, 3 (2007): 558-577.

Swailes, Stephen. “Organizational Commitment: A Critique of the Construct and Measures”. International Journal of Management Reviews 4, 2 (2002): 155-178.

Ulrich, D. Human Resource Champions: The Next Agenda for Adding Value and Delivering Results. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997.

Van Dyne, Linn, Graham, Jill W., and Dienesch, Richard M. “Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Construct Redefinition, Measurement, and Validation”. Academy of Management Journal 37, 4 (1994): 765-802.

Van Veldhoven, M. “Financial Performance and the Long-Term Link with HR Practices, Work Climate and Job Stress”. Human Resource Management Journal 15, 4 (2005): 30-53.

Whitener, Ellen M. “Do “high commitment” human resource practices affect employee commitment? A cross-level analysis using hierarchical linear modeling”, Journal of Management 27 (2001): 515–535.

Wiener, Y. and Vardi, Y. “Relationships Between Job, Organization, and Career Commitments and Work Outcomes: An Integrative Approach”. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 26, 1 (1980): 81-96.

Williams, L. J. and Anderson, S. E. “Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship and In-Role Behaviors”. Journal of Management 17 (1991): 601-617.

Wittig-Berman, U. and Lang, D. “Organizational Commitment and Its Outcomes: Differing Effects of Value Commitment and Continuance Commitment on Stress Reactions, Alienation and Organization-Serving Behaviors”. Work and Stress 4 (1990): 167-177.

Wright, P. M., Gardner, T. M., and Moynihan, L. M. “The Impact of HR Practices on the Performance of Business Units”. Human Resource Management Journal 13, 3 (2003): 21-36.

Xiao, Zhixing and Björkman, Ingmar. “High Commitment Work Systems in Chinese Organizations: A Preliminary Measure”. Management and Organization Review 2, 3 (2006): 403-422.


Full text: PDF (English)

To cite this article: JRAD, M., (2020). How HR practices affect organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Entrepreneurship, 8 (2), 130-160, DOI: 10.37708/ep.swu.v8i2.12